The 475 series scopes use tantalum capacitors. They are known to short out and bring the scope down.
Typical symptoms will be no trace, or powering on and going off in few seconds due to built in fold-back protection. The shorted capacitor in the power rails will bring down one (or more) of them causing entire scope to be non functional.
Quick way to troubleshoot is, after powering off - and ensuring all capacitors are discharged - check resistance to ground on each power supply rail and identify the shorted power rail. Then trace the offending tantalum capacitor in the shorted rail with the help of schematic. This could in any board/sub assembly, not necessary in the power supply or A9 board.
You can replace tantalum caps with general electrolytic. Remember to ensure you install them in the correct polarity, specially on the negative rails.
Refer to service manual first for the overview of the equipment and general troubleshooting procedure with specific component level troubleshooting chart.
If you are new to the instrument, ensure that the scope is in the right settings. For example, trigger (in Auto), V and H positions, focus/intensity at the at correct levels and Time base selector switch is selected for right time base.
At a high level the process is to start with power supplies, and are ensure all power supply voltages are within the specified tolerance. There are test points on the main A9 board.
- Isolate the problem to a specific section first, for example Power supply, HV, Vertical, Horizontal, Trigger.
- There are DC voltages marked in every section of the schematic. Set the oscilloscope to the specific settings as mentioned in the service manual and verify all DC bias voltages at the schematic section in question are matching service manual. Once again remember to keep the scope in the specific settings as specified in the service manual. The failing section of the schematic can be easily spotted by a missing or incorrect DC bias value, mostly due to shorted or open components.
- There are AC waveforms shown in the schematic for every block of the schematic. Verify and confirm the same with another scope to isolate the failing component/section.
- Service manual explains the schematic in detail, refer it for a detailed understanding of the section you are troubleshooting.